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Primer II: Lesson 9: Nouns II

i Grammar

i.i Nouns II

In Lesson 7, I explained how the accusative and genitive work. In this lesson I will explain the Dative, and the Plural forms.

The dative form adds 'um' to the end. As in the acc and gen, the dative displaces a final vowel, if any. Thus, 'The queen said to the little girl' is 'L'atlen diarai lum ingum oringum.' The dative is also used after 'ya' when 'ya' is used meaning 'with.'

The plural adds a 'y' between the noun and the ending. It also displaces a final vowel. 'Mountains' becomes 'Stanya.' If a word ends with y + vowel, then the ending 'ai' is used. For instance, 'the whole worlds' is 'lai gayai telya.' The article also adds the -ai ending. For the accusative, genitive, and dative, the ending is added after the -ai. 'Laios' is the definite article plural genitive.

i.ii Test

  1. The queens say 'How are you' to the little girls.
  2. The queens run to the girls, when they play with little girls with tattered clothes.
  3. The man said 'Farewell' to the women [ora -- woman], and to their children.

Check the answers!

ii Tatterhood -- Grestacol

ii.i Instructions

  1. Translate the section, and send it to me at morseaa2 @ aol . com!
  2. Keep writing your own version!
  3. Also, make sure you understand it all, because the next lesson is review!

ii.ii Grestacol

"Laf tistenar te frolar mias, ne dikenarai laias yodyas mios arde ablar," diarai le inge oring.

"Tios arde esar?" Regarai l'atlen, "Ya iablar nai yodyas?"

L'omaring decsai sium orum umna las cafalas. "Ne iliar, mios arde trenar edar orya i ablar omaringya, ma tens zalar."

ii.iii Vocabulary

  1. Laf tistenar te -- You would not [subjunctive]
  2. Kenar -- Know
  3. Yod -- Power
  4. Arde -- Mother
  5. Decsar -- Point
  6. Cafal -- Market Ne -- If
  7. Edar -- Tell
  8. Tens -- Everything
  9. Zalar -- Fail
Continue and finish Part I!