Nouns are declined into four cases, nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative. This lesson will discuss what happens to the noun in the accusative and genitive cases in the singular form. (Not plural.)
To become accusative, the noun adds the ending -as. All endings beginning with a vowel displace the final vowel of a word if a word ends in a vowel. For example: cara or house becomes caras. In this case, the vowel is a stane however, the noun becomes stanas with no trace of the final e. Catel, family, becomes catelas.
The genitive case is formed by adding -os. This is added to the end of the word, again displacing the final vowel. The genitive can mean 's, or of. In the phrase: los omranos cara, omranos is translated as man's. In the phrase: le cara los omranos, it is translated as 'of the man.' Not that the definite article l' changes as well, using the same changes as the noun. Also, when you have a noun and an article, they both change. Also note that 'of the' is the translation when the genitive noun is after the other. In cases like 'mine' and 'yours' the regular genitive is used.
Adjectives and pronouns follow the same course, although a pronoun's final vowel is not displaced if the vowel is i or e.. Thus 'The green[vagre] man's house' becomes: los vagros omranos cara, but 'my house' is mios cara.
Check the answers!
L'atlan diar se, ne l'atlen liar omaringyas, litrenar ablar laias omaringyas kalanos lios lebar ya lum atlanum. L'atlen ridar leesar sias bendas ridas, ya iablar dras oringyas umna las ceras
Continue with Lesson 8 and talk about the past!