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Primer 1: Lesson 3: The verbs 'to say' 'to walk' and Cases 2

i Grammar

i.i The Verbs

The verb 'to say' is diar, its roots are di- and -ar. Note its presence in Diarenyë. It is also related to diar, speech. Diar is the only noun ending in -ar!

The verb 'to walk' is azar, az- and -ar.

i.ii Dative and Genitive

In the last lesson I discussed the nominative and accusative cases, and promised to discuss the dative and genitive here.

The dative case means 'to/for (a noun).' Thus in 'John goes to Mary', Mary is in the dative case, or would be if it was in Diarenyë. John yesar Maryum. The dative case is to/for, but is also used after 'with'.

The genitive case means 'of' and is called possesive in English. In 'We are going to John's house', John's is the genitive. Used after a word, it means 'of', or does in Diarenyë.

i.iii Test

  1. In 'The house of John', what is in the genitive case?
  2. In 'John goes to the house of Mary', what is in the dative, and what in the genitive?
  3. What is 'He who walks' in Diarenyë? [Tip: how did you do he who has?]
  4. Li-si-diar means what? [Tip: he who. . . .]
  5. Take a sentence from the following story, and analyze for dative and genitive.
(Find answers here.)

ii Lisiesar

ii.i Instructions

  1. Follow all previous instructions
  2. Create your own 'Meeting' dialogue

ii.ii The Story

Lisiesar azar andr las stanas, ya lilestar sias ombranas. Lidiar, "Nai esar tios kening?"

L'ombran diar, "Mios kening esar Lisimazar. Ya tios?"


"Esar bend, Lisiesar."

"Esar bend, Lisiazar."

Lisiesar yesar lios ondos Carum, ya lestar lios ondu. Lidiar, "I tiesar, mios ondu?"

"Bend, bend. Ya ti?"


i.iii Vocabulary

Although this is much longer, many of the words you already know, so don't become afraid that there's a lot of memorization!

  1. Azar -- walk [verb]
  2. Ya -- and/with [prep.]
  3. Lestar -- see [verb]
  4. Omran/-os -- man/gen man [noun]
  5. Diar -- say [verb]
  6. Nai -- what [question word]
  7. Ti/-os -- you/your [pronoun/gen pronoun]
  8. Kening -- name [noun]
  9. Lisiazar -- he who walks [name]
  10. Bend -- good [adjective]
  11. Ondu -- friend [noun]
  12. I -- how [prep.]

iii Translation

iii.i Conversation

Person 1: "My name is He Who Says, what is your name?"
2: "My name is He Who Has, how are you, He Who Says?"
1: "Well. And you?"
2: "Well. Farewell!!"
1: "Farewell!"

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Continue with Lesson 4