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Primer II: Lesson 11: Future Tense, and Past Perfect

i Grammar

i.i Future

The future tense adds the suffix -e. It also follows the consonant-cluster rule of the past tense. Example: miable, I will have.

i.ii Past Perfect

If you have studied German, this is what you would consider the spoken past, if not, it is when one says, "I have left." Not "I left" but "I have left." In Diarenyë, as you will no doubt recall, the verb "to be" can be either "esar" or "vetar." Until now, you have not had much occasion to use the "vetar" form. This is where it is used. Example: Mivetar mazarai. I am finished [done.] The verb "ablar" is also used. Miablar yesarai. I have gone. It can also be used in the future. For instance, "I will have eaten lunch by the time you return" uses a future past perfect.

i.iii Test

  1. Translate the following:
    1. I will be finished.
    2. I will be gone when you come to the market.
    3. I will climb the mountain.
    4. I have climbed the mountain.


ii Grestacol

ii.i Instructions

  1. Follow all prevous instructions.

You will notice that everything is getting shorter, explanations, instructions, etc. This is because you are reaching the point in Diarenyë where you can understand the grammar much more easily. In the beginning, you were starting from scratch, by now you will know many words, phrases, and grammatical terms that will help you in your study.

ii.ii Grestacol

L'atlen diarai, "Edar tios arde miliar dear ya ium umna las ceras."

Le inge oring tabarai lum cafalum, ya bel si on ora azar umna los atlenos simaras.

"Tios arding diar se tiablar yodyas, ya se titrenar edar mias, i mitrenar ablar omaringyas mios," diarai l'atlen.

"L'atlen lef limar te lum diarum sios omaringos," diarai l'ora.

"Ludar," diarai l'atlen. Temar iedarai las oras se iliarai omaringyas ios pe so gala umna las gayas telas.

ii.iii Vocabulary

  1. Dear -- Speak
  2. Bel -- Soon
  3. Pad -- Tall
  4. Simara -- Room
  5. Arding -- Daughter
  6. Lef limar te -- Should not listen
  7. Ludar -- Sit
  8. Pe so gala -- More than anything
  9. Gaya -- Entire
  10. Tel -- World

Continue with Lesson 12