Primer I : Lesson 1 : The verb ‘to be’

i. Grammar

i.i The two verbs

The first thing to understand about Diarenyë grammar is that, although simple, there are many quirks which could change the meaning of your sentence entirely. The verb ‘to be’ is one of these. Actually, the last statement should be rephrased to ‘the verbs “to be”. . .’ This is because there are two verbs translated by the one English verb.

Do not become frightened that Diarenyë has millions more words than English, and vocabulary will be a pain. This is not so. Diarenyë is in many ways simple, but the two 'to be's is not one of those ways.

The first verb is esar. This is made of two parts: the first is es-, which signifies ‘be’, andthe second -ar which is the main verbal suffix. This is very important, because in parts of Diarenyë this suffix is dropped, so do not believe that it is an inseperable part of the verb.

Esar is the verb used in phrases such as ‘I am a boy’ Miesar si omraning. You should use this verb in pretty much every instance.

The second is vetar, made of vet-, and -ar. This is an auxiliary verb, or it is used only as a helping verb. Use it in sentences such as, ‘I am found!’ Mivetar ristai.

i.ii Test

In this test, I will write out five sample English sentences, the goal is to answer which verb would be used if those sentences were translated to Diarenye. You are not expected to write down any more than the infinitive of the verb, or esar and vetar.

I. I am found!

II. How are you?

III. What is happening?

IV. I am gone.

V. I am a mountain man.

(Find the answers in the ‘answer’ page.)

ii. Lisiesar

In this section, I will give you instructions, and below that the start of a short story, and then vocabulary.

ii.i Instructions

1. Read through the story a few times, careful to get each word correct.

2. When you are finished, translate the story into and out of English.

3. Another good idea is to tell the story out loud, working on pronounciation, and on learning the words.

4. If you want to, make flashcards, although I think that the above three, if you do them often enough, will suffice.

For project 2, below are some lines for translating the story. Enjoy!



Lisiesar kesar andr las stanas. Liesar bendsa. Rum liesar bendsa? Il liesar. Rum liesar? Il liesar Lisiesar.

ii.iii Vocabulary

  1. Lisiesar -- He who is [a name.]
  2. Kesar -- Come/comes [verb.]
  3. Andr -- Down [preposition.]
  4. Las -- The, object [definite article.]
  5. Stane/stanas -- Mountain [noun.]
  6. Li -- He [prefix to verb/pronoun.]
  7. Bendsa -- Happy/well [adjective.]
  8. Rum -- Why [question word.]
  9. Esar -- Be [verb.]
  10. Vetar -- Be [auxiliary verb.]
  11. Il -- because [prep.]
Continue with Lesson 2
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